Drs. Nancy Adler, Tom Boyce, Nicki Bush, and other researchers at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) are using the Childhood Opportunity Index to examine associations between neighborhood qualities and the health of kindergarten children in the greater San Francisco area. The team has merged the Index with data collected as part of the Peers and Wellness Study (PAWS) to explore the unique and interactive influence of neighborhood, family, and individual factors on children’s health during early development. Preliminary analyses suggest that neighborhoods that are higher in resources buffer the impact of low parental socioeconomic status on children’s health during the transition to kindergarten. Research will continue to explore environmental factors that affect children’s health and development with the aim of informing prevention and intervention efforts to support children’s healthy development.